An environmental noise intervention framework, showing different types of interventions along
the causal path between noise sources and human outcomes, and measurement points along
the pathway where changes relevant to human outcomes can be measured, has been used to
structure this review. The framework also assists in focussing future studies of the effects of noise
This systematic review of the literature, 1980–2014, found, overall, that there has been a limited
number of transport intervention studies published that report observed changes in health
outcomes, or observed changes in peoples’ exposures, together with quantitative details on the
association between change in exposure and change in human health effects.
The majority of these were for road traffic noise sources; fewer for aircraft noise and rail traffic
noise. The principal change in health outcomes assessed was annoyance, with fewer sleep
disturbance, cardiovascular effects, and cognitive development in children.
Because of the diversity, a meta-analysis across studies examining the association between
changes in level and changes in outcome was not possible. However, the available evidence
did show that transport noise interventions changed the health outcomes reported by those
who experience the intervention. This is the case irrespective of the source, the outcome or the
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