The power of La Niña: its effect on rivers, floodplains and humans

Play Video

$40,000

Prizes

5,626

Views

1. Please give a brief summary of your work.

Floods can have a significant impact on human settlements, mostly because 90% of the human population lives 10km away from rivers and other bodies of fresh water. This motivated me to understand:


Why the natural levees of a river are breached only during certain flood events?

How levee breaching can lead to the formation of new river channels?

Why the formation of new river channels only happens at specific locations?


Based on satellite imagery, local and global climatic data, and geological information from a South American river I found that the frequency of levee breaching significantly increases during La Niña climatic events and that the formation of new channels can be triggered and maintained by extreme La Niña events. I also found that the geologic setting can determine where new channels are formed. This research showcases how climate and the geologic setting can control the dynamics of river systems and highlights that if we want to effectively manage the risks associated with living on floodplains we need to understand how these systems are interconnected.

2. Describe your approach and broader findings.

The first step of this research was to examine worldwide satellite imagery to find a river where the natural levees were frequently breached during floods and to use that site as a natural laboratory. Once I found a suitable river system, The Magdalena River in South America, the biggest challenge was to understand why in some years the floods were more intense and resulted in the breaching of the levees. It turns out that the variability of river flow from one year to another in the Magdalena River is largely governed by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO has two contrasting phases El Niño and La Niña (girl in Spanish), droughts tend to occur during El Niño phases while wet seasons are considerably stronger during la Niña phases. Interestingly, similar patterns have also been observed in Australia. This allowed me to use similar statistical methods, that had previously been applied in Australia to understand the effect of El Niño-La Niña in precipitation and river flow, to my South American case study.

 

To test if there was a link between the timing of levee breaching and La Niña phases, I compiled 41-years of satellite imagery from the Magdalena River and recorded the specific locations and dates when natural levees of the river were breached. By comparing that information with local records of rainfall and river discharge and global records of ENSO events I found that the frequency of levee breaching significantly increases during La Niña phases, as a direct result of increases in precipitation and river flow. I also discovered that the formation of new river channels was triggered and maintained by frequent and large flood events related to the 2007-2008 and 2010-2011 extreme La Niña events.

 

The remaining piece of the puzzle was to understand why these new river channels were formed in that particular location. To elucidate this, my team and I went to the field to collect topographic data, river depth and sediment samples and combined this information with geological maps and published geophysical data. We found that the new river channels were formed in that particular location because of changes in elevation caused by a fault. This was an exciting finding because it neatly showcases how the geological setting can control river systems.

3. What is the wider contribution, or impact, to your scientific field(s)?

These results illustrate how global-scale climatic processes can trigger levee breaching and the formation of new river channels, providing valuable information for river management authorities and allowing improved mitigation strategies to assess the risks associated with major flood events. This research showcases how climate and the geologic setting can control the dynamics of river systems and highlights that if we want to effectively manage the risks associated with living on floodplains we need to understand how these systems are interconnected.

 

Because ENSO is a global climate phenomenon I was able to make use of advances in statistical methods developed in Australia and apply them to a South American site. Additionally, this cross-disciplinary approach brought together a team of sedimentologists, geomorphologists, climate scientists and hydrologists. Because this research investigates global processes and floods affect the vast majority of human population, our approach can be broadly applied in other locations by using publicly-available datasets (satellite imagery, ENSO records and local climatic data) and open source software.

4. Are there any potential ideas you would like to explore to take this research further?

I would like to understand why in other regions around the world levee breaching has occurred during moderate flood events, soon after a much larger flood had passed. A current hypothesis is that other critical parameters such as water-surface slope and water pressure on the floodplain levee walls can also control whether levee breaching and channel formation occur, or not. However, because those parameters can rarely (if ever) be measured in the field, the role that those parameters play on levee breaching and on channel formation has seldomly been explored or only speculated upon. To overcome this, I want to use numerical modeling to explore the potential role of those parameters, so that we can better understand the hydrodynamics of levee breaching.

 

Rivers and their floodplains can be preserved in the geologic record, thus I am also investigating the long-term geological controls that allow the maintenance and preservation of river systems. The greatest challenge of that research goal is that these long-term controls occur over time scales longer than human-life spans, so their effects are usually assessed via indirect evidence. I am currently using numerical modeling to try to overcome that shortcoming. This approach has the advantage of unambiguously defining all of the input variables so that the geological controls that allow the preservation of fluvial systems can be directly evaluated. A long-term goal of my scientific career is to improve the quantitative tools and methods that geologist use to better understand and interpret the geological record, specifically by combining numerical modeling and insights from Earth-processes that we observe during human-life spans. This aspect of my research has applications for the exploration resources (e.g. water and hydrocarbons) that are accumulated in rocks that were rivers millions of years ago.

5. Please share a link for researchers to access a relevant publication, data-set, or thesis.

Morón, S., Amos, K., Edmonds, D. A., Payenberg, T., Sun, X., Thyer, M. 2017. Avulsion triggering by El Niño–Southern Oscillation and tectonic forcing: The case of the tropical Magdalena River, Colombia. Geological Society of America Bulletin doi: 10.1130/B31580.1

 

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by Chevron Australia Pty Ltd. SM carried out this research while being a recipient of an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship awarded by the Australian Government. Edmonds acknowledges support from National Science Foundation grant 1249330 and from the donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund. We are grateful to the people who provided logistical and technical support and help with the data collection and analysis: R. Serrano, G. Ribbon, J. Grech, C. Rosero. F., M. Ariza, R. Nanson. N. Hoyos, J. C. Restrepo, M. Clark. We specially thank students C. Ortiz, J. Avellaneda for their valuable help in the field. Satellite imagery is from Imagery is from EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/).

Comments

7
Sara Morón
about 1 year ago

A massive THANK YOU to everyone who has voted for me!

hzxhzx hzxhzx
3 months ago

adidas outlet


adidas originals


nike shox


nike air max


vans outlet


givenchy handbags


ray ban sunglasses


balenciaga sandals


christian louboutin


nike kyrie 3


kate spade outlet


roshe run


stephen curry shoes


nike air max 90


ralph lauren uk


oakley sunglasses


true religion


hermes bags


nike lunarglide


timberland outlet


mishka clothing


undefeated clothing


polo outlet


louboutin


converse outlet


asics


louis vuitton outlet


coach outlet


oakley sunglasses


ferragamo


nike tn


michael kors outlet


louis vuitton outlet


nike trainers


vibram fivefingers


mont blanc pens


adidas jeremy scott


pandora jewelry


adidas outlet


flops


nike free


swarovski jewelry


manchester united jersey


coach outlet store online


jordan shoes


birkenstock outlet


nike huarache


nhl jerseys


ferragamo


michael kors outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet


mlb jerseys


manolo blahnik


lebron 15


nike roshe


supra shoes


cheap jerseys


bvlgari jewelry


adidas outlet


coach outlet


cheap jerseys


dior handbags


nike outlet store online


adidas yeezy


jordan shoes


red bottom shoes


coach wallets


adidas ultra boost


kevin durant shoes


ray ban sunglasses


polo ralph lauren


michaelkors outlet


ralph lauren


jordan 5


beats by dre


michael kors


barcelona jersey


mbt


timberland boots


coach handbags


red bottom shoes


louis vuitton


jordan 8


ralph lauren


michael kors handbags


louis vuitton outlet


mulberry


michael kors outlet


nike air max


stussy clothing


marc jacobs


longchamp


baseball jerseys


ray ban sunglasses


nike outlet


beats by dre


adidas yeezy


toms outlet


hermes


asics


dolce and gabbana


coach outlet online


wholesale snapback hats


ray ban sunglasses


birkenstock outlet online


gucci outlet


adidas nmd


jordan 1


new balance


ray bans


jordan 6


nike free


oakley sunglasses


mcm backpack


air jordan


replica rolex watches


nike dunks


flip-flops


cheap jordans


louis vuitton handbags


kate spade outlet


birkenstock sandals


louis vuitton outlet


michael kors


hollister outlet


adidas wings


balenciaga


jordan


ralph lauren


adidas


adidas nmd


yeezy shoes


jordans


herve leger dresses


ray ban sunglasses


new balance sandals


pandora jewelry


louboutin


louis vuitton


supreme new york


fingerlings monkey


mont blanc


puma fenty sandals


nike shoes


louis vuitton


polo ralph


ralph lauren


nike air max 1


cheap rolex watches


chicago blackhawks jersey


coach factory outlet


off-white


red bottom shoes


polo shirts


burberry outlet


coach outlet online


hermes belt


jordans


ray ban


flops


salvatore ferragamo


cartier bracelet


michael kors outlet


nfl jerseys


oakley sunglasses


longchamp outlet


oakley sunglasses


coach outlet


vans shoes


nike presto


nfl jerseys


harden vol 2


light up shoes


oakley sunglasses


true religion outlet


longchamp


burberry sale


jordan 3


rolex watches


coach outlet


louis vuitton handbags


air jordan


mbt


harden vol 1


kate spade handbags


toms shoes


nike blazer shoes


polo ralph


nike air force 1


oakley


ralph lauren outlet


timberland


nike mercurial


michael kors


kate spade


breitling watches


fitflops


nike huarache


michael kors outlet


nike free


tory burch outlet


dansko


gucci slides


kate spade outlet


nike sb


ralph lauren


nike huarache


jordans


nike air max 95


nike shoes


nfl jerseys


ray ban sunglasses


shoe carnival


jordan xx9


louis vuitton


nike shoes


michael kors handbags


louis vuitton outlet


mac cosmetics


hermes kelly bag


jordan shoes


jordan 12


supreme


prada outlet


off-white clothing


pandora jewelry


superdry clothing


michael kors outlet


oakley sunglasses


tag heuer watches


giuseppe zanotti


van cleef & arpels jewelry


jordan shoes


mont blanc pens


nike air max 97


louis vuitton handbags


nike blazer


kobe 11


replica watches


baseball bats


kate spade outlet


michael kors outlet


nike tennis


pandora outlet


nike air max


cheap nhl jerseys


longchamp outlet


michael kors


coach outlet


louis vuitton


michael kors


converse shoes


nba jerseys


supreme


running shoes


michael kors


coach outlet


true religion


coach outlet


birkenstock sandals


fitflops


louis vuitton


coach outlet


nike air max 2018


fila shoes


puma slides


under armour outlet


birkenstock outlet


suicoke sandals


ray ban


soccer jerseys


ralph lauren


burberry scarves


cheap oakley sunglasses


prada


malone souliers


cheap jerseys


jordan


tory burch outlet


bottega


nike outlet store


jimmy choo outlet


jordan 11


adidas flip flops


air jordan pas cher


timberland


polo ralph lauren


burberry outlet


louis vuitton


sac longchamp


coach factory outlet


nike factory outlet


nike flip-flops


valentino


prada


stuart weitzman


longchamp


michael kors outlet


wedding shoes


louis vuitton


hermes outlet


pandora charms


true religion outlet


nike shoes for women


oakley sunglasses


supreme clothing


breguet watches


louis vuitton outlet


air max


adidas stan smith


nike epic react flyknit


juicy couture outlet


true religion jeans


ralph lauren outlet


bcbg


nike air max plus


tory burch outlet


adidas football boots


ray ban sunglasses


belstaff outlet


tory burch


michael kors outlet


jordan shoes


balenciaga triple s


michael kors


pandora charms


mlb jerseys


yeezy 500


coach factory outlet


nike cortez


coach outlet


converse


nike store


y-3 shoes


basketball shoes


ray ban sunglasses


flip flops


adidas superstar


louis vuitton


polo outlet


cheap ray ban sunglasses


pandora jewelry


timberland


burberry outlet


fitflops


nike air max 270


nike outlet


nike air force 1


ray ban sunglasses


nike air


nike revolution


celine


coach outlet


mlb jerseys


tod's shoes


coach outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


jordans


oakley sunglasses


alexander mcqueen


adidas outlet store


audemars piguet


mizuno


fitflops


adidas slides


air jordan


pandora jewelry


coach bags


nike free run


miu miu handbags


polo ralph lauren


true religion jeans


nike air max 2017


swarovski


michael kors handbags


nike air max


pandora charms


air max


jordan 4


rolex watches


louboutin


ray ban


ralph lauren


prada outlet


jordan


rolex watches


links of london


swarovski


new balance shoes


adidas shoes


nike air max


louboutin shoes


christian louboutin


louboutin


christian louboutin


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet online


michael kors outlet store


kobe 12 shoes


nfl jerseys wholesale


timberland boots

hzx20180516

yaoxuemei yaoxuemei
about 1 month ago

adidas yeezy shoes


coach outlet


nike kyrie 3


pandora outlet


ray ban sunglasses


coach outlet canada


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


polo outlet


michael kors outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


pandora jewelry


ralph lauren outlet


cheap mlb jerseys


christian louboutin outlet


ralph lauren outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


ralph lauren outlet


polo ralph lauren


gucci outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


fitflops sale clearance


canada goose outlet


ray ban sunglasse


fred perry polo shirts


christian louboutin shoes


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


polo outlet


polo outlet


tory burch outlet


fred perry outlet


fitflops sale clearance


coach outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


off white clothing


michael kors outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


cheap ray bans sunglasses


canada goose outlet


polo outlet


canada goose jackets


nike air max


ralph lauren polo shirts


mcm handbags


giuseppe zanotti outlet


michael kors outlet


cheap jordans


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


canada goose outlet


adidas yeezy


true religion jeans


fred perry polo


coach outlet


coach outlet


pandora jewelry


pandora jewelry


uggs outlet


canada goose outlet


louboutin shoes


birkenstock shoes


canada goose outlet


oakley sunglasses


true religion jeans


ugg outlet


adidas outlet


coach outlet


kate spade handbags


mlb jerseys wholesale


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet online


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


ugg outlet


moncler outlet


michael kors outlet clearance


true religion jeans


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet


true religion outlet


christian louboutin outlet


nike outlet


michael kors uk


adidas nmd


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


kate spade outlet


pandora jewelry


tory burch outlet


adidas yeezy


uggs outlet


ugg outlet


nhl jerseys


supreme uk


mont blanc pens


pandora outlet


nike shoes


coach outlet


rolex watches


michael kors handbags


nfl jerseys


kate spade outlet


superdry clothing


ray ban outlet


coach factory outlet


mbt shoes


coach outlet online


pandora outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


adidas superstar shoes


coach outlet


uggs outlet


coach outlet


polo shirts


kate spade outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


ferragamo outlet


clarks shoes


michael kors outlet


coach outlet


christian louboutin outlet


coach factory outlet


pandora outlet


nike outlet


coach outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


polo outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


cheap jordans


tory burch outlet


nba jersey


kate spade outlet


ray ban sunglasses


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet store online


ralph lauren polo


mbt shoes


air max 2017


pandora outlet


michael kors outlet


moncler outlet


fitflops sale clearance


pandora charm


oakley sunglasses


coach outlet


air jordan retro


adidas nmd


coach outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


michael kors outlet


canada goose outlet


michael kors handbags


mcm outlet


uggs canada


longchamp outlet


manolo blahnik outlet


ray ban sunglasse


nike shoes


polo ralph lauren


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


true religion outlet store


polo ralph lauren pas cher


polo outlet


coach outlet


christian louboutin


pandora outlet


cheap jordans


christian louboutin outlet


michael kors outlet


polo ralph lauren


air max 90


michael kors outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


kate spade outlet


pandora jewelry


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


nfl jerseys


canada goose outlet


pandora outlet


true religion outlet


polo outlet


adidas outlet


nike outlet


gucci outlet


ugg outlet


true religion jeans


asics running shoes


ugg outlet


pandora outlet


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


polo ralph lauren


michael kors outlet


adidas shoes


mont blanc pens


nike shoes outlet


polo ralph lauren


uggs outlet


valentino outlet


coach factory outlet


pandora outlet


mont blanc pens


polo ralph lauren


nhl jerseys


michael kors outlet


cheap jordans


ralph lauren outlet


prada outlet


ray ban sunglasse


mlb jerseys


ugg boots


canada goose outlet


vans shoes


air jordan shoes


pandora jewelry


pandora charms


ralph lauren sale clearance


cheap nfl jerseys


pandora charms


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


ray ban sunglasses


canada goose jackets


ed hardy


birkenstock outlet


michael kors outlet


rolex watches


ultra boost


converse


adidas nmd


uggs outlet


coach outlet


true religion outlet


nike trainers


ugg outlet


kate spade outlet


ugg outlet


coach outlet


coach factory outlet


coach outlet


canada goose jackets


ugg boots


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


coach outlet


kate spade outlet


ray ban sunglasses


kobe bryant shoes


cheap oakley sunglasses


michael kors outlet


mulberry handbags


prada handbags


mbt shoes


moncler outlet


coach outlet


pandora outlet


canada goose jackets


polo ralph lauren


fred perry polo shirts


pandora charms


true religion jeans


ralph lauren polo


canada goose outlet


polo ralph lauren


canada goose outlet


true religion jeans


coach outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet clearance


canada goose jackets


pandora outlet


coach factory outlet


polo outlet


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


ralph lauren uk


christian louboutin outlet


nike outlet


nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


polo ralph lauren


canada goose outlet


nike huarache


coach outlet


supreme outlet


polo ralph lauren


pandora charms


oakley sunglasses


michael kors outlet


nfl jerseys


ugg outlet


christian louboutin outlet


ugg boots


lunette ray ban


michael kors outlet


michael kors handbags


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


mbt shoes


polo ralph lauren


coach factory outlet


tory burch outlet


michael kors outlet


ugg outlet


prada outlet


uggs canada


canada goose jackets


polo ralph lauren


mulberry handbags


yeezy boost


adidas outlet


mont blanc pens


michael kors handbags


polo ralph lauren


pandora outlet


ugg outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


christian louboutin shoes


air jordan 4


pandora charms


nfl jerseys


nike outlet


michael kors outlet


kate spade outlet


michael kors outlet


ralph lauren outlet


coach outlet online


giuseppe zanotti outlet


longchamp outlet


ferragamo shoes


michael kors handbags


nike outlet


uggs outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


moncler outlet


canada goose outlet


pandora jewelry outlet


kate spade outlet


canada goose jackets


coach factory outlet


polo outlet


vibram fivefingers


nike shoes


ray ban sunglasses


ugg boots


coach outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


moncler jackets


fitflops sale clearance


mulberry handbags


true religion outlet


polo ralph lauren


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


michael kors outlet


kate spade outlet


nike shoes


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


christian louboutin outlet


mbt shoes


ugg outlet


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


michael kors outlet


cheap jerseys


coach outlet


red bottom shoes


michael kors outlet clearance


coach outlet online


canada goose outlet


adidas nmd shoes


michael kors outlet


lacoste outlet


pandora charms


pandora outlet


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet online


true religion outlet


ugg outlet


ralph lauren shirts


pandora charms


coach outlet


cheap snapbacks


canada goose outlet


longchamp handbags


moncler jackets


lebron james shoes


hermes belts


pandora charms


oakley sunglasses


coach outlet


coach outlet


yeezy boost 350


michael kors handbags


mulberry handbags


polo ralph lauren


canada goose jackets


coach factory outlet


ray ban sunglasse


kate spade outlet


ralph lauren shirts


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


michael kors outlet


pandora charms


michael kors outlet


coach factory outlet


hermes birkin


canada goose jackets


oakley sunglasses


canada goose jackets


ed hardy clothing


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


mbt shoes


ugg boots


ugg outlet


puma outlet


kate spade outlet


kate spade outlet


michael kors outlet


air max 90


nfl jerseys wholesale


yeezy boost


kate spade outlet


valentino outlet


oakley sunglasses


pandora charms sale clearance


michael kors outlet


pandora charms


ugg boots


coach outlet


moncler outlet


mbt shoes


pandora outlet


ugg boots clearance


canada goose jackets


yaoxuemei20180709

yaoxuemei yaoxuemei
about 1 month ago

adidas yeezy shoes


coach outlet


nike kyrie 3


pandora outlet


ray ban sunglasses


coach outlet canada


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


polo outlet


michael kors outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


pandora jewelry


ralph lauren outlet


cheap mlb jerseys


christian louboutin outlet


ralph lauren outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


ralph lauren outlet


polo ralph lauren


gucci outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


fitflops sale clearance


canada goose outlet


ray ban sunglasse


fred perry polo shirts


christian louboutin shoes


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


polo outlet


polo outlet


tory burch outlet


fred perry outlet


fitflops sale clearance


coach outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


off white clothing


michael kors outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


cheap ray bans sunglasses


canada goose outlet


polo outlet


canada goose jackets


nike air max


ralph lauren polo shirts


mcm handbags


giuseppe zanotti outlet


michael kors outlet


cheap jordans


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


canada goose outlet


adidas yeezy


true religion jeans


fred perry polo


coach outlet


coach outlet


pandora jewelry


pandora jewelry


uggs outlet


canada goose outlet


louboutin shoes


birkenstock shoes


canada goose outlet


oakley sunglasses


true religion jeans


ugg outlet


adidas outlet


coach outlet


kate spade handbags


mlb jerseys wholesale


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet online


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


ugg outlet


moncler outlet


michael kors outlet clearance


true religion jeans


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet


true religion outlet


christian louboutin outlet


nike outlet


michael kors uk


adidas nmd


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


kate spade outlet


pandora jewelry


tory burch outlet


adidas yeezy


uggs outlet


ugg outlet


nhl jerseys


supreme uk


mont blanc pens


pandora outlet


nike shoes


coach outlet


rolex watches


michael kors handbags


nfl jerseys


kate spade outlet


superdry clothing


ray ban outlet


coach factory outlet


mbt shoes


coach outlet online


pandora outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


adidas superstar shoes


coach outlet


uggs outlet


coach outlet


polo shirts


kate spade outlet


oakley sunglasses wholesale


ferragamo outlet


clarks shoes


michael kors outlet


coach outlet


christian louboutin outlet


coach factory outlet


pandora outlet


nike outlet


coach outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


polo outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


cheap jordans


tory burch outlet


nba jersey


kate spade outlet


ray ban sunglasses


christian louboutin outlet


coach outlet store online


ralph lauren polo


mbt shoes


air max 2017


pandora outlet


michael kors outlet


moncler outlet


fitflops sale clearance


pandora charm


oakley sunglasses


coach outlet


air jordan retro


adidas nmd


coach outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


michael kors outlet


canada goose outlet


michael kors handbags


mcm outlet


uggs canada


longchamp outlet


manolo blahnik outlet


ray ban sunglasse


nike shoes


polo ralph lauren


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


true religion outlet store


polo ralph lauren pas cher


polo outlet


coach outlet


christian louboutin


pandora outlet


cheap jordans


christian louboutin outlet


michael kors outlet


polo ralph lauren


air max 90


michael kors outlet


nfl jerseys wholesale


kate spade outlet


pandora jewelry


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


nfl jerseys


canada goose outlet


pandora outlet


true religion outlet


polo outlet


adidas outlet


nike outlet


gucci outlet


ugg outlet


true religion jeans


asics running shoes


ugg outlet


pandora outlet


coach outlet


canada goose outlet


polo ralph lauren


michael kors outlet


adidas shoes


mont blanc pens


nike shoes outlet


polo ralph lauren


uggs outlet


valentino outlet


coach factory outlet


pandora outlet


mont blanc pens


polo ralph lauren


nhl jerseys


michael kors outlet


cheap jordans


ralph lauren outlet


prada outlet


ray ban sunglasse


mlb jerseys


ugg boots


canada goose outlet


vans shoes


air jordan shoes


pandora jewelry


pandora charms


ralph lauren sale clearance


cheap nfl jerseys


pandora charms


cheap nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


ray ban sunglasses


canada goose jackets


ed hardy


birkenstock outlet


michael kors outlet


rolex watches


ultra boost


converse


adidas nmd


uggs outlet


coach outlet


true religion outlet


nike trainers


ugg outlet


kate spade outlet


ugg outlet


coach outlet


coach factory outlet


coach outlet


canada goose jackets


ugg boots


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


coach outlet


kate spade outlet


ray ban sunglasses


kobe bryant shoes


cheap oakley sunglasses


michael kors outlet


mulberry handbags


prada handbags


mbt shoes


moncler outlet


coach outlet


pandora outlet


canada goose jackets


polo ralph lauren


fred perry polo shirts


pandora charms


true religion jeans


ralph lauren polo


canada goose outlet


polo ralph lauren


canada goose outlet


true religion jeans


coach outlet


coach outlet


michael kors outlet clearance


canada goose jackets


pandora outlet


coach factory outlet


polo outlet


kate spade outlet


coach outlet


ralph lauren uk


christian louboutin outlet


nike outlet


nfl jerseys


michael kors outlet


polo ralph lauren


canada goose outlet


nike huarache


coach outlet


supreme outlet


polo ralph lauren


pandora charms


oakley sunglasses


michael kors outlet


nfl jerseys


ugg outlet


christian louboutin outlet


ugg boots


lunette ray ban


michael kors outlet


michael kors handbags


coach outlet


michael kors outlet


mbt shoes


polo ralph lauren


coach factory outlet


tory burch outlet


michael kors outlet


ugg outlet


prada outlet


uggs canada


canada goose jackets


polo ralph lauren


mulberry handbags


yeezy boost


adidas outlet


mont blanc pens


michael kors handbags


polo ralph lauren


pandora outlet


ugg outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


christian louboutin shoes


air jordan 4


pandora charms


nfl jerseys


nike outlet


michael kors outlet


kate spade outlet


michael kors outlet


ralph lauren outlet


coach outlet online


giuseppe zanotti outlet


longchamp outlet


ferragamo shoes


michael kors handbags


nike outlet


uggs outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


moncler outlet


canada goose outlet


pandora jewelry outlet


kate spade outlet


canada goose jackets


coach factory outlet


polo outlet


vibram fivefingers


nike shoes


ray ban sunglasses


ugg boots


coach outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


moncler jackets


fitflops sale clearance


mulberry handbags


true religion outlet


polo ralph lauren


coach outlet online


polo ralph lauren


michael kors outlet


kate spade outlet


nike shoes


michael kors outlet


michael kors outlet


christian louboutin outlet


mbt shoes


ugg outlet


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


michael kors outlet


cheap jerseys


coach outlet


red bottom shoes


michael kors outlet clearance


coach outlet online


canada goose outlet


adidas nmd shoes


michael kors outlet


lacoste outlet


pandora charms


pandora outlet


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


coach outlet


coach outlet online


true religion outlet


ugg outlet


ralph lauren shirts


pandora charms


coach outlet


cheap snapbacks


canada goose outlet


longchamp handbags


moncler jackets


lebron james shoes


hermes belts


pandora charms


oakley sunglasses


coach outlet


coach outlet


yeezy boost 350


michael kors handbags


mulberry handbags


polo ralph lauren


canada goose jackets


coach factory outlet


ray ban sunglasse


kate spade outlet


ralph lauren shirts


michael kors outlet


uggs outlet


michael kors outlet


pandora charms


michael kors outlet


coach factory outlet


hermes birkin


canada goose jackets


oakley sunglasses


canada goose jackets


ed hardy clothing


pandora jewelry


coach outlet


mbt shoes


ugg boots


ugg outlet


puma outlet


kate spade outlet


kate spade outlet


michael kors outlet


air max 90


nfl jerseys wholesale


yeezy boost


kate spade outlet


valentino outlet


oakley sunglasses


pandora charms sale clearance


michael kors outlet


pandora charms


ugg boots


coach outlet


moncler outlet


mbt shoes


pandora outlet


ugg boots clearance


canada goose jackets


yaoxuemei20180709

Gerald Enrique
7 days ago

This calls for a good Commercial Riverside Contractor who will help with this issues.

Gerald Enrique
7 days ago

This calls for a good Commercial Riverside Contractor who will help with this issues.

yaoxuemei yaoxuemei
5 days ago

chenlina20180817

ralph lauren polo


michael kors outlet clearance


nike epic react


ralph lauren


nike tennis


yeezy 500


michael kors handbags sale


mulberry handbags


north face backpacks


polo outlet


canada goose sale


tory burch shoes


hermes bags


canada goose outlet


hundreds clothing


bottega veneta handbags


lebron 14


nhl jerseys


breitling watches


fitflop sandals


red bottom shoes


coach outlet online


canada goose outlet


coach outlet


harden vol 1


nike basketball shoes


ray ban sunglasses


nike air max


tiffany jewelry


fussball trikots


air jordan 6


coach handbags


michael kors handbags


coach outlet


philipp plein outlet


omega watches


jordan shoes


breguet watches


light up shoes


ralph lauren outlet


tory burch handbags


mlb jerseys


vibram shoes


christian louboutin shoes


persol sunglasses


sophia webster


mac cosmetics


lebron james jersey


christian louboutin shoes


nike flip-flops


bvlgari jewelry


air jordan 12


ysl makeup


maillot de foot


cheap replica watches


air jordan


nike outlet store


burberry sale


ralph lauren outlet


herve leger


ralph lauren outlet


reebok shoes


nike air force 1


flip-flops


nike blazer


teva sandals


ナイキ スニーカー


oakley sunglasses


curry shoes


coach outlet


kobe 11


links of london jewellery


parajumpers jackets


snapback hats


valentino shoes


jordan shoes


ralph lauren outlet


designer belts


nike outlet


ralph lauren polo


jordan xx9


mishka clothing


coach outlet


cristiano ronaldo jersey


ralph lauren polo


nike air force 1


michael kors bags


lee jeans


ray ban sunglasses for women


audemars piguet watches


cheap nfl jerseys


nike presto


saint laurent sunglasses


pandora jewelry


michael kors handbags


asics running shoes


cheap supra shoes


coach factory outlet


canada goose sale


michael kors outlet


mont blanc pens


manolo blahnik


maillot de foot pas cher


balenciaga triple s


oakley sunglasses cheap


air jordan 4


pelikan pens


birkenstock outlet


jordan shoes


fila shoes


mac makeup


givenchy handbags


kd 8


ralph lauren


nfl jerseys


columbia sportswear


fitflops


kyrie 2


kd 10


skechers shoes


tods shoes


kyrie 3


suicoke sandals


adidas ultra boost


christian louboutin outlet


off-white clothing


adidas yeezy boost 350


ray ban sunglasses


ysl handbags


nike roshe


salvatore ferragamo


baseball bats


nike cortez


air jordan 5


longchamp handbags


onitsuka tiger


longchamp handbags


fitflops


jordan 14


nike shoes


nike shoes for men


jordans


louboutin shoes


nike sb


ralph lauren outlet


nike factory store


ray bans


nike huarache


paul george shoes


stephen curry jersey


jordan shoes


tom brady jersey


nike uk


y-3 shoes


hermes belt


soldier 10


coach outlet


nike free run


puma slides


ralph lauren polo


moose knuckles jackets


nike blazer


giuseppe zanotti


mlb jerseys


ray ban sunglasses outlet


harden vol 2


nike trainers


coach outlet sale


balenciaga shoes


tory burch bags


timberland boots


mcm bagsk


russell westbrook jersey


michael kors handbags


birkenstock sandals


jordan shoes


nike sb


north face jackets


lebron 15


timberland boots


polo shirts


ralph lauren


alexander mcqueen


ray ban sunglasses


football shirts


fitflops


chaussures christian louboutin


kate spade


nike shoes for women


prada outlet


air jordan


longchamp handbags


ralph lauren


shoe carnival


camisetas de fútbol


hermes


supreme clothing


nike free run


marc jacobs handbags


marcelo burlon


jordan pas cher


air jordan 1


pandora outlet


oakley sunglasses outlet


ray ban


christian louboutin shoes


tom ford sunglasses


nike revolution


the north face


malone souliers


beats headphones


coach outlet


oakley sunglasses


monster headphones


nike air max 270


ray ban sunglasses


cheap michael kors bags


belstaff jackets


coach outlet online


pandora jewelry canada


adidas jeremy scott


wedding shoes


michael kors taschen


puma shoes


michael kors outlet clearance


manchester united jersey


ralph lauren outlet


true religion


kate spade outlet


true religion outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


russell westbrook shoes


swarovski jewelry


jordan shoes


juicy couture handbags


under armour shoes


oakley sunglasses


police sunglasses


pandora charms


soccer jerseys


longchamp handbags


converse shoes


vans old skool


michael kors bags


ambassador 10


lebron soldier 11


mont blanc


michael kors outlet clearance


columbia outlet


under armour shoes


coach outlet online


nfl jerseys wholesale


tommy hilfiger shirts


uggs outlet


ray ban sunglasses


jordan shoes


longchamp outlet


fitflops


burberry outlet


nike factory store


linda farrow sunglasses


versace sunglasses


oakley sunglasses


new balance shoes


nike air max


coach outlet online


maglia calcio


hermes birkin bag


kd shoes


van cleef & arpels


sac longchamp


supra shoes


nike trainers


converse shoes


basketball shoes


michael kors outlet clearance


versace handbags


off-white clothing


prada sunglasses


barcelona jersey


birkenstock sale


mizuno running shoes


coach factory outlet


puma fenty


ferragamo


adidas yeezy 350 boost


trikots günstig


adidas outlet store


coach outlet store online clearance


superdry clothing


russell wilson jersey


nfl jerseys


coach outlet


nike air max


nike flight bonafide


nike store


nike air max


christian louboutin shoes


ugg boots


cartier bracelet


burberry outlet


hermes kelly bag


camisetas de fútbol


vans shoes


oakley sunglasses


true religion


coach outlet online


nike air max plus


michael kors handbags


miu miu sunglasses


true religion


adidas football boots


michael kors outlet clearance


supreme pas cher


nike free run


kate spade outlet


nike air max 2017


pandora jewelry


ralph lauren outlet


ferragamo belt


nike dunks


nba jerseys


pandora charms


timberland boots


vendita maglie calcio


nike air max


air max 1


michael kors handbags


adidas store


yeezy shoes


soccer jersey


ray ban sunglasses cheap


manolo blahnik


new balance shoes


philipp plein


coach outlet


hollister clothing


coach outlet


pandora jewelry


levi's jeans


adidas nmd


nike factory store


soccer jerseys


nike running shoes


adidas outlet store


pandora charms


birkenstock sandals


jimmy choo shoes


nike lunarglide


swarovski crystal


vetements clothing


supreme hoodie


jordans


air jordan 8


michael kors outlet


nike free run


adidas nmd


polo outlet


jordan shoes


timberland outlet online


christian louboutin shoes


ralph lauren outlet


ralph lauren


mont blanc


converse shoes


pasotti ombrelli


stan smith


adidas flip flops


christian louboutin outlet


adidas stan smith


dolce and gabbana


soccer jerseys


ray ban sunglasses


visconti pens


jordan pas cher


ray ban sunglasses


coach factory outlet


fingerlings monkey


adidas slides


tory burch shoes


ralph lauren jeans


nike outlet store


woolrich jackets


timberland outlet


kate spade handbags


mbt shoes


north face jackets


nike outlet store


adidas outlet store


supreme clothing


new balance shoes


scarpe mbt


nike air max


michael kors purse


converse shoes


cheap rolex watches


rolex watches


beats headphones


nike air max


lululemon


red bottom shoes


marc jacobs bags


air jordan


cheap michael kors bags


undefeated clothing


ugg boots


coach outlet


true religion


balenciaga shoes


flipflops


coach handbags


michael kors outlet clearance


air max 97


adidas wings


miu miu shoes


nfl jerseys


vans shoes


coach handbags


nine west shoes


true religion


nfl jerseys


nike tn


air max 90


air jordan 3


cheap mlb jerseys


air max 95


jordan 11


christian dior handbags


lululemon sale


ray ban sunglasses


nike shox


oakley sunglasses outlet


the north face jackets


ray ban sunglasses outlet


ray ban sunglasses


bcbg dresses


kate spade outlet


michael kors handbags


prada bags


prada handbags


lebron 15


fitflops


coach handbags


mk purse


oakley sunglasses


cheap nfl jerseys


cheap mlb jerseys


soldier 9


versace clothing


maui jim sunglasses


kate spade


vans store


hermes bags


dansko shoes


adidas outlet


swarovski crystal


oakley sunglasses


coach factory outlet


nobis jackets


mac cosmetics


snapback hats


nike shoes


victoria's secret outlet


ray ban sunglasses


kobe shoes


ronaldo jersey


tiffany jewelry


nike air max 2018


burberry canada


oakley sunglasses


nike mercurial


adidas superstar


lebron 13


huarache


omega watches


prada


nfl jersey


x-large clothing


stussy


kate spade purse


pandora charms


tiffany bracelet


saucony running shoes


celine handbags


jordan


mcm handbags


spalding basketball


mikimoto jewelry


nike hyperdunk


new balance


tiffany jewelry


tory burch


christian louboutin


nhl jerseys


tag heuer watches


stuart weitzman shoes


yoga pants


longchamp


north face outlet


red bottom shoes


supreme clothing


cheap jerseys


nicholas kirkwood


nike roshe


pandora charms


chenlina20180817